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Protein and its concern on kidneys

Metabolic waste of protein: Facts

  • Intake of protein produces waste in the blood.
  • The metabolic products of proteins are urea, creatinine, uric acids and other nitrogenous products, and they are being excreted out, mainly through urine.
  • Below are examples of common uremic wastes produced by the body:

protein-related metabolic

  • In the setting of CKD, these compounds may accumulate and exert their uremic effects on various systems, including the immune system.

Creatinine

  • It is a waste product produced by muscles from the breakdown of a compound called creatine.

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  • As shown above, EAAs deficiency will cause protein break down from muscle tissues to provide nutrients such as EAAs for body metabolism
  • Health practitioners usually measure the level of creatinine in the blood to check kidney function and used it to access GFR readings. High levels of creatinine may indicate that the kidney is damaged and not working properly.

However, creatinine in your blood is affected by your age, race, gender, and body size.

Normal serum creatinine range:
Men: 60 – 110µmol/L
Women: 45 – 90µmol/L

Urea

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  • Urea nitrogen is a normal waste product in the blood that comes from the breakdown of protein from the foods from body metabolism.
  • It is normally removed from the blood by kidneys, but when kidney function slows down, the BUN (Blood urea nitrogen) level rises.
  • High urea level in blood indicates there are high amount of uremic toxins that is not filtered due to kidney failure.

Low protein diets (LPD): how it works?

  • LPD besides lower the production of protein wastes, it also slows down the decline of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in CKD patients to reduce the accumulation of unexcrected waste products.
  • LPD also preserves the rate of progression of advanced CKD, thus delay the need for dialysis treatments.
  • For stable, non-dialysis dependent CKD individuals, a low-protein diet (LPD) is recommended with a daily intake of 0.6-0.8g/kg.
  • However, despite of low protein intake, sufficient supplementation of EAAs are important to ensure normal body function and preventing of muscle loss.